Dr Ronan Kennedy BDS (QUB)

Dr Ronan Kennedy
Clonmullen Lane
Edenderry
Co Offaly
T: 046 973 1304/973 3750

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News - February 2021

Can we treat dental disease better?

dfdfdUniversity of Illinois Chicago (UIC) researchers captured high-resolution, real-time images of the mineralisation process in an artificial saliva model. Their discovery showed distinct pathways that support bone and teeth formation, or biomineralisation. Reza Shahbazian-Yasser, UIC professor of mechanical and industrial engineering at the College of Engineering and corresponding author of the paper said: “The control over the dissolution of amorphous calcium phosphate affects the assembly of hydroxyapatite crystals into larger aggregates. Using technology developed at UIC, we found evidence that these pathways coexist simultaneously -- explaining why different groups had reported seemingly different or opposite results. In addition, we now understood how hydroxyapatite materials nucleate and grow on amorphous calcium phosphate templates. The control over the nucleation and growth of hydroxyapatite will aid in developing new drugs and medical treatments to heal lost or broken bones faster or cure tooth cavities”.
To capture the images, the researchers used a unique micro-device that made it possible to use electron microscopy with a liquid model. Using this method, the researchers were able to monitor chemical reactions in the model on the smallest scale.
"Our study provides clear, new evidence of how minerals organise and grow into bone materials, and this finding has many important implications for further research on bone or teeth healing," Shahbazian-Yasser said.
Medical conditions caused by dysfunctional mineralisation in the body can include everything from a tendency to develop cavities to osteoporosis. "In the next step, we would like to learn how molecular modifiers can affect the process of biomineralisation, which is important to develop effective drugs," Shahbazian-Yasser said.

From: sciencedaily.com

 

Gum disease-causing bacteria borrow growth molecules from neighbours to thrive

dfdfdThe human body is filled with friendly bacteria. However, some of these microorganisms, such as Veillonella parvula, may be too nice. These peaceful bacteria engage in a one-sided relationship with pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis, helping the germ multiply and cause gum disease, according to a new University at Buffalo (UB)-led study.
The research sought to understand how P. gingivalis colonises the mouth. The pathogen is unable to produce its own growth molecules until it achieves a large population in the mouth. The answer: it borrows growth molecules from V. parvula, a common yet harmless bacteria in the mouth whose growth is not population dependent.
In a healthy mouth, P. gingivalis makes up a miniscule amount of the bacteria in the oral microbiome and cannot replicate. But if dental plaque is allowed to grow unchecked due to poor oral hygiene, V. parvula will multiply and eventually produce enough growth molecules to also spur the reproduction of P. gingivalis.
More than 47% of adults 30 and older have some form of periodontitis (also known as gum disease), according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in the US. Understanding the relationship between P. gingivalis and V. parvula will help researchers create targeted therapies for periodontitis, says Patricia Diaz, DDS, PhD, lead investigator on the study and Professor of Empire Innovation in the UB School of Dental Medicine.
The study, which was published on December 28 in the ISME Journal, tested the effects of growth molecules exuded by microorganisms in the mouth on P. gingivalis.

From: sciencedaily.com

 

The incredible bacteria living in your mouth

dfdfdBacteria often show very strong biogeography -- some bacteria are abundant in specific locations while absent from others -- leading to major questions when applying microbiology to therapeutics or probiotics: how did the bacteria get into the wrong place? How do we add the right bacteria into the right place when the biogeography has gotten 'out of whack'?
These questions, though, have one big obstacle, bacteria are so tiny and numerous with very diverse and complicated populations, which creates major challenges to understanding which subgroups of bacteria live where and what genes or metabolic abilities allow them to thrive in these 'wrong' places.
In a new study published in Genome Biology researchers led by Harvard University examined the human oral microbiome and discovered impressive variability in bacterial subpopulations living in certain areas of the mouth.
The mouth contains a surprising amount of site-specific microbes in different areas. For instance, the microbes found on the tongue are very different from the microbes found on the plaque on teeth. Co-author A. Murat Eren said: "Your tongue microbes are more similar to those living on someone else's tongue than they are to those living in your throat or on your gums!"
Using an approach called metapangenomics, which combines pangenomes (the sum of all genes found in a set of related bacteria) with metagenomics (the study of the total DNA coming from all bacteria in a community), allowed the researchers to conduct an in-depth examination of the genomes of the microbes, which led to a shocking discovery. "We found a tremendous amount of variability," said lead author, Daniel R. Utter, "But we were shocked by the patterning of that variability across the different parts of the mouth; specifically, between the tongue, cheek, and tooth surfaces”.

From: sciencedaily.com